The word intelligence derives from the Latin word intelligere which means to comprehend or to perceive. it is the most basic meaning of intelligence.
Intelligence is a bunch of different abilities like -understand novel stimuli, learning, language and
communication, being aware of the environment, the ability to reason, plan, and solve the problems creatively.
According to Britannica dictionary, Intelligence is the mental quality that consists of the abilities –
- To learn from experience,
- Adapt to new situations,
- Understand and handle abstract concepts, and
- Use knowledge to manipulate one’s environment
American Psychological Association (APA) refers intelligence as intellectual functioning
Nature Vs. Nurture Debate in Intelligence
Nature– The genetic factors that we have inherited from our parents, such as height or skin colour. Nativist who believe intelligence is purely controlled by our hereditary factors .
Nurture– All the environmental factors that can impact us, such as rearing process, family, socioeconomic conditions, social support, cultural factors, etc. Environmentalists / empiricists believe intelligence depends upon experiences or environmental conditions.
Recently studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors play a vital role in shaping intelligence.
Definitions of intelligence
Albert Binet defined intelligence as The ability to judge well, to understand well, to reason well.
Intelligence is the capacity to form concepts and to grasp their significance. (Terman 1916)
According to David Wechsler (1944), “Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.”
Sternberg and Kaufman (2011) defined intelligence is one’s ability to learn, think and to adapt to the environment.
Terman emphasizing on the ability to think abstractly and Thorndike emphasizing learning and the ability to give good responses to questions.
Initially they were more stressing intelligence as an ability or general mental ability but now Most of the psychologist agreed that Adaptation to the environment is the key to understanding both what intelligence is and what it does.
How can we test Intelligence?
- Intelligence Quotient (IQ) concept was devised by German psychologist William Stern. It is the division of Mental Age(MA) by Chronological Age(CA) and then multiplied by 100.
IQ = (MA/CA) x 100
- Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales
- The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
- Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC)
How can we improve our Intelligence ?
According to American Psychological Association (APA)- We can improve intelligence through-
- Better nutrition,
- more education & training
- Believing You Can Get Smarter Makes You Smarter! ( Aronson, Fried, & Good, 2001; Steele, 2002; Blackwell, L., Dweck, C., & Trzesniewski, K. 2002 )
References for Intelligence
Sternberg, R. J. https://www.britannica.com/science/human-intelligence-psychology