- 1 MALINS INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR INDIAN CHILDREN (MISIC)
- 2 MALINS INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR INDIAN CHILDREN (MISIC)
MALINS INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR INDIAN CHILDREN (MISIC)
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
Intelligence is an inferred process that humans use to explain the different degrees of adaptive success in people’s behaviour.
It has been defined by various psychologists. They are as follows:
- The ability to judge well, to understand well, to reason well. -by Binet & Simon
- The capacity to form concepts and to grasp their significance.- by Terman (1916)
- The ability of the individual to adapt adequately to relatively new situations in life. -by Pinter (1921)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC)
According to Wechsler “Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.”
He developed Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale in 1939.
He was interested in measuring the intelligence of adults so he designed another scale known as Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). This test was revised a couple of times. The first revised edition was published in 1981- WAIS-R. Another edition was published in 1997- WAIS III.
The WISC was originally developed as a downward extension of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale in 1949. WISC was broadly categorized into two parts each part having 6 subtests. They are as follows:
- Verbal Tests – Information, Comprehension, Arithmetic, Similarity, Vocabulary & Digit Span.
- Performance Tests– Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, Object Assembly, Coding, Mazes
This test works on the concept of point scale. All items of a particular type are grouped together and are presented in the increasing order of difficulty. A raw score of each test is totalled and then converted into a derived score, called “Scaled Scores” in WISC. This scaled score is converted into IQ’s for verbal, performance and full-scale IQ.
A revised edition was published in 1974, known as WISC-R. It featured the same subtests however the age range was changed from 5-15 to 6-16. Another revised edition was published in 1991 known as WISC III. Currently, we are using WISC IV which was published in 2003.
MALINS INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR INDIAN CHILDREN (MISIC)
Malin’s has been adapted from the American test WISC developed by Dr. David Wechsler.
The Indian Scale has been constructed by Dr Arthur J. Malin of Nagpur. During adaptation, an almost total revision had to be made of the test, especially of the culturally biased verbal items. So the test was named as Intelligence Scale for Indian Children- ISIC or MISIC. English is the only language that applies universally through India; hence WISC has adapted in English for English Speaking children in India. Later it was also adapted in Hindi and Marathi as India is a country dominated by many regional languages.
MISC is an intelligence test for children from the ages of 6 to 15 years 11 months. It is administered individually and takes about 2 to 2-1/2 hours. The test comprises of 11 subtests divided into two groups, Verbal and Performance. Verbal Scale consists of 6 subtests and Performance Scale consists of 5 subtests.
- Information Test: The test consists of questions about factual knowledge of persons, places, and common phenomena. It has total of 30 questions. Questions 1-5 are used for children below 8 years old or suspected mental defects. Each item is scored 1 or 0. The subject above 8 years is given credits for question 1-5 directly, if the subject passes items 6,7 & 8. Discontinue the test after 5 consecutive failures.
Examples- How many ears you have?
- General Comprehension Test: The test consists of questions about certain practices and behavior under certain situations. It measures conventional knowledge and knowledge of social appropriateness. It has total 14 questions. The test is discontinued after 3 consecutive failures.
Each item is scored from 0-2. Items 1-5 are scored 2 points if the subject takes personal responsibility; and 1 point if the subjects knows what is to be done, but the responsibility is shirked away. For item 6-14, 2 points are given when the subject gives 2 good reasons , and 1 point when the subject gives one reason.
Example- What should you do if you cut your finger?
3. Arithmetic Test– The test consists of questions based on a simple mathematical calculation which are solved mentally. Problems 1-3 are for the subjects below 8 years or suspected mental defectives. Discontinue after 3 consecutive failures.
Each item is scored 1 or 0. Credit is given to the subject for the first 3 items if the subject above 8 years solves the item 4 and 5 correctly.
Example- if I break this pencil in half, how many pieces there will be?
4.Analogy & Similarity test–
Analogy: The test consists of 4 incomplete sentences based on analogies that the subject has to complete. The test is for subjects below 8 years old. Each correct analogy is given a score of 2.
Example- Lemon is sour, but sugar is……….
Similarity– The test consists of questions where the subject has to find the similarity between the two things. It measures verbal concept formation. This test is for subjects above 8 years. Discontinue the test after 3 consecutive failures or return to the analogy. Each item is scored from 0-2, depending on the answer. If the subject answers the 3 items correctly in similarity, the subject is given the credit for 4 analogies.
5. Vocabulary Test– The test consists of the question that measures the subject’s general intelligence. It reflects the subject’s breadth of experience and ideas developed over the years. The test has 40 items. Discontinue the test after 5 consecutive failures.
Each item is scored from 0 to 2. Except item 1-6 which are scored as 0 or 2. Subject can start directly from 10th item. The subject is credited 2 points directly for the previous 9 items if he/she gives 2 point definition for 10th– 14th items.
Example- cycle, shoe, etc.
- Digit Span Test– In this test the subject is told a sequence of number verbally. The subject is supposed to repeat the number in the same order. The test is divided into 2 types. They are:
- Digit Span Forward- the digits are repeated as they are called out.
- Digit Span Backward- the digits are repeated in the reverse order.
The score of the test is the highest number of digits repeated without error, both forward and backward digits together.
1. Picture Completion Test– The test consists of twenty pictures in which some part of each picture is missing. The subject is supposed to tell which part of the picture is missing. The subject gets fifteen seconds to examine each picture. The test is discontinued after four failures.
Scoring- One point is given for each correct response except for last five pictures where an extra bonus score is credited if at least three pictures of the last five are correct.
2. Block Design Test– The test consists of 7 coloured blocks and a booklet with pictures of the block arranged according to specific geometric designs. The subject has to arrange the blocks according to the design shown in the picture. The task requires concept formation.
Scoring- the subject is given four points plus bonus according to the table for design 1 to 7. No points are given for the incomplete design.
3. Object Assembly- This test consists of puzzles that the subject has to rearrange in meaningful design. It requires visual-motor co-ordination, plan fullness and concept formation. The test has four puzzles. They are manikin, horse, face and auto.
Man: For perfect performance, 4 points are rewarded or bonus. 3 points if legs are interchanged or inverted. 2 points if legs or arms are omitted.1 point if the only trunk is correct.
Horse: Perfect performance is rewarded 6 points or bonus 5 points if the only stomach is inverted 4 points if the midpiece is omitted or legs interchanged. 3 points if the midpiece is inverted and legs interchanged. 2 points if midpiece or leg is omitted.1 point is given for every two pieces joined correctly.
Face: Perfect performance is awarded 6 points or bonus. 5 points if eyes are inverted or hairpieces omitted. 4 points if mouth and chin omitted. 3 points if large half (2 pieces) are omitted. 1 point if large half and hair are omitted. ½ point is given for each proper joint separate or joined to the whole.
Auto: Perfect performance is given 6 points or a bonus. 5 points if the door is inverted or reversed. 4 points for omitting pieces 4 & 5 or omitting piece 7. 3 points for omitting 7 and inverting or reversing piece 4, also omitting pieces 4, 5, & 7. 1 point is given for each proper joint.
- Coding– The test consists of certain symbols that are paired with numbers or shapes. The subject has to learn them and pair with the appropriate corresponding numbers. Concentration and speed of work are important factors in this test. The test has two parts, Coding A & Coding B.
Coding A: this part is for subjects under 8 years or suspected mental defects. The test should be completed in 120 seconds. The score is the number of designs completed in that time. (Excluding samples) If the subject completes the test before time bonus point is given.
Coding B: this part is for subjects above 8 years. This section has to be completed in 120 seconds. 1 point is given for each correct response.
- Mazes– The test requires the subject to trace through the maze and reach the end point. The test has 5 mazes which have to be completed in the given time limit.
Scoring- maze A, B, C are given 2 points if solved without error. 1 point if completed with 2 errors. Mazes 1-5 are given 3 point without error, 2 points if one error is committed, 1 point if two errors committed and 0 points when the subject passes the maximum allowed error.
PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES of Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC)
Reliability- MISIC was established with the test-retest method and yielded a Pearson’s Product Moment correlation coefficient of 0.91 for full-scale IQ result.
Validity- MISIC established concurrent as well as congruent validity. The former was established from school ranking whereas later was obtained from an adapted version of California short-form test of Mental Maturity for the upper age level and from the good enough Draw a Man test for the lower age level. Both yielded a coefficient of 0.63
Norms- Indian norms are based on percentile points which were converted into IQs by Thomson formula. Using this formula anchor IQs were obtained on the basis of the standard deviation of 15 IQ.
When the IQs were plotted it gave a platykurtic graph skewed to the right. To make the graph normal two modifications were made; hypothetical 5% was added to the lower second and third standard deviation and some other modifications were made at the other extreme too. Most of the raw score fell under 16th percentile to 84th percentile; this made the 95th percentile a very high scoring norm. The abnormality of the graph was found to be due to 2 reasons; lack of subnormal cases and lack of extra normal cases.
Scoring of Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC)
For scoring the test, the raw score of all the subtests are totalled and converted into the Test Quotients (TQs) by means of the ‘T table’ in the manual. After converting into TQs, the average of each group has to be added and found out separately.
To obtain full-scale IQ both the Verbal & Performance test totals are added and then divided for the average
If an only verbal group of TQs are obtained they can be balanced by adding 6% of the TQs.
MISIC uses the concept of point scale. All the items of a given type are grouped together in the increasing order of difficulty.
The point or raw score of each subtest are totalled and converted into TQs, which are actually IQs. The subtests TQs are then added and group averaged and full scale is similarly obtained.
Sample Size- for standardization purpose over 1200 children were given full individual tests during the past 6 years and over 3000 were sampled in subtest trial runs. Average of about 90 samples were used for each level including boys and girls in a ratio of 20:30. Age norms are based on a 12-month interval.
Regional Norms- For the English version, samples were taken from Nagpur, Mumbai, Shimla, Mangalore & New Delhi. For Marathi and Hindi versions, samples were taken from Nagpur alone.
APPLICATION OF MISIC
- -Used as a tool in the educational setting as well as clinical setting.
- -Helps teachers and parents in guiding students for educational and vocational planning.
- -Used to diagnose learning disabilities in students.
- -To identify children with ADHD problem
- -Used to identify talented and gifted students, and also mentally challenged students.
- -Used in identifying students cognitive strengths and weaknesses.
- – Used in tracking intellectual development.