The abbreviation “IQ” was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligence quotient. IQ was a score obtained by dividing a person’s mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person’s chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months.
The resulting fraction (quotient) is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score. Although it has its limitations, and it has many lookalikes that use far less rigorous measurements, Binet’s IQ test is well-known around the world as a way to compare intelligence.
Factors Affecting IQ.
- Family environment
- Maternal age
- Maternal age related to intelligence with younger mothers tending have children of lower intelligence than older mothers. However, this relationship may be non-linear with older mothers being at increased risk of giving birth to children with down syndrome which greatly affects cognitive abilities.
- Drugs and substance abuse.
- The particular genetic and environmental factors that determine IQ have been difficult to pin down scientifically, but several aspects of the environment including socioeconomic status and education correlate with IQ. It is a fact that malnutrition can reduce IQ.
- Evidence of genetic influences in IQ.
- Twin studies shows that identical twins IQ’s are more similar than those of fraternal twins Siblings reared together in the same home have IQ’s that are more similar than those of adopted children raised together in the same environment.
Evidence of environmental influences in IQ.
- Identical twins reared apart have IQ’s that are less similar than identical twins reared in the same environment.
Characteristics of High IQ Person.
- Highly adaptable- Intelligent people are flexible and able to thrive in different settings. They adapt by “showing what can they do regardless of the complications or restrictions placed upon them.
- Have insatiable curiosity- Passionate curiosity about the world around you may be one of the keys to intelligence. Intelligent people let themselves become fascinated by things others take for granted.
- Open minded- Smart people don’t close themselves off to new ideas or opportunities. Intelligent people are “willing to accept and consider other views with value and broad-mindedness” and that they are “open to alternative solutions.
- High self control- They know how to control their emotions and impulses so they won’t cause any harm. Having self-control is a sign of intelligence because it means you’re more likely to think before you speak or act.
- Like their own company- They could easily have several close relationships and cherish the time they spend with loved ones — as long as they get enough time for themselves.
- Sensitive to other peoples experiences- Smart people can “almost feel what someone is thinking/feeling”.
- Peter Salovey and J.Mayer (1990) defined the term EI as a form of social intelligence. It involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others feelings and emotions to discriminate among them and use this information to guide one’s thinking and action.
- Reuven-Bar-On (1997) “Emotional Intelligence is an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies and skills that influence ones’ abilities to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.”
- Daniel Goleman (1998): Emotional Intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships.
- Emotional Intelligence describes abilities distinct from, but complementary to, academic intelligence or the purely cognitive capacities measured by IQ.
- Bradberry, Travis and Greaves, Jean (2009) states that EI can be defined as the ability, capacity, and skill or in the case of the trait EI, a self-perceived ability, to identify, assess and also manage the emotion of one’s self of others and of groups. It is part of art of managing people at the workplace.
Five Element of Emotional Intelligence.
1. Self-awareness- People with high EI understand their emotions and they don’t let their feelings rule them. They know their strengths and weaknesses, and they work on these areas so they can perform better.
2. Self-regulation- This is the ability to control emotions and impulses. People who self regulate typically don’t allow themselves to become too angry or jealous, and also they don’t make impulsive, careless decisions. They think before they act.
3. Motivation- People with a high EI are willing to defer immediate results for long-term success. They are highly productive, love a challenge, as well as effective in whatever they do.
4. Empathy- This is the ability to identify with and understand the wants, needs, and viewpoints of those around you. However, empathetic people avoid stereotyping and judging too quickly, and they live their lives in an open, honest way.
5. Social skills- People with strong social skills are typically team players. Rather than focus on their own success, they help others to develop and shine. They can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and also are masters at building and maintaining relationships.
Three Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence.
EI constitutes three psychological dimensions-
1. Emotional competency,
2. Emotional maturity and
3. Emotional sensitivity
These motivate an individual to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of human behavior”
- Goleman (1998a) defines Emotional Competence as ‘a learned capability based on emotional intelligence that results in outstanding performance at work”
- It refers to the essential social skills to recognize, interpret, as well as respond constructively to emotions in yourself and others. Thus, the term implies an ease around others and determines one’s ability to effectively and successfully lead and express.
- It is the ability to handle situations without unnecessarily escalating them. Instead of seeking to blame someone else for their problems or behavior, emotionally mature people seek to fix the problem or behavior. Moreover, they accept accountability for their actions.
- It refers to the ease or difficulty with which your children respond emotionally to various situations. Some children are highly sensitive emotionally to their own feelings and feel things very deeply, while others do not seem to be aware of what they are feeling at all.
Low EQ Characteristics
- Getting in Lots of Arguments- You probably know someone who always seems to get into arguments with others. Because low EQ individuals struggle to understand the emotions of others, they often find themselves arguing without considering how others are feeling:
- Not Understanding How Others Feel- Low EQ people are often completely oblivious to the feelings of other people. Correspondingly, they don’t get that their spouses might be angry at them or that their co-workers are irritated. Emotions, in general, tend to exasperate people with low EQ.
- Thinking That Other People Are Overly Sensitive- People who are low in EQ might crack off jokes at inappropriate times. For example, they might make a joke at a funeral or right after a tragic event. These individuals have difficulty understanding the emotions of others, so it’s little wonder why they are unable to interpret the emotional tone after such events.
- Lack of Empathy- Because people with low emotional intelligence do not understand the emotions of others, they experience little empathy for other people. They do not get what others are feeling, so it is impossible for them to place themselves in another person’s shoes.
- Sudden Emotional Outburst- The ability to regulate emotions is one of the five critical components of emotional intelligence. However, people with low EQ often struggle to understand and control their emotions. Thus, they might have unexpected emotional outbursts that seem overblown and uncontrollable.
- Difficulty Maintaining Friendships- Because low EQ people often come off as abrasive and unfeeling, they have difficulty maintaining friendships. Close friendships require a mutual give-and-take, sharing of emotions, compassion, and also emotional support, all of which low EQ individuals struggle with.
- Galloti, K. M. (2004). Cognitive psychology in and out of the laboratory. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
- Matlin, M. (1994). Cognition. Bangalore: Harcourt Brace Pub.
- Anderson, J. R. (2015). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Worth Publishers