Notes for chap 2. TESTING IN CLINICAL SETTING
2.1 Logical-Content Approach-
- ‘All the mental abilities in the world remain inert in someone who sits in the corner of a room all day. But even modest mental abilities can go far in a high-energy individual who relates well to others and is organized, persistent, determined, and motivated.’
- These non intellective aspects of human behavior, typically distinguished from mental abilities, are called personality characteristics.
- vital in clinical and counseling settings.
- Binet hypothesized that a person’s pattern of intellectual functioning might reveal information about personality factors (Binet & Henri, 1896).
- WWI- no. personality test.
- psychologists used self-report questionnaires-list of statements and required subjects to respond (T/F).
- Structured / objective method of personality assessment as distinguished from the projective method.
Strategies of Structured Personality-Test Construction
- Personality as relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize an individual and his or her reactions to the environment.
- Structured personality tests evaluate personality traits, personality types, personality states, and other aspects of personality, such as self-concept.
- Personality traits= relatively enduring dispositions—tendencies to act, think or feel in a certain manner in any given circumstance and that distinguish one person from another.
- Personality types = general descriptions of people; for example, avoiding types have a low social interest and low activity and cope by avoiding social situations.
- Personality states= emotional reactions that vary from one situation to another.
- self-concept= a person’s self-definition. an organized and relatively consistent set of assumptions that a person has about him- or herself (Rogers, 1959).
use reason and deductive logic to determine the meaning of test responses.
- primary strategy.
- Uses reason and deductive logic in the development of personality measures.
- tries to logically deduce the type of content that should measure the characteristic to be assessed.
- EX -“I frequently eat between meals.”
- “I enjoy solving complex puzzles,”—not
- If a person marks “True” for the statement “I am outgoing,” then testers assume that he or she is outgoing.
- Assumption= the test item describes the subject’s personality and behavior.
Criticisms of the Logical-Content Approach
- Extremely useful as screening devices
- answers as honestly as possible.
- subjects might not be able to evaluate their own behaviour objectively in the area covered by the test item.
- may not interpret the test item in the same way as the test constructor or test user (pot bhar j1 karto?)
- sharply criticized by Ellis, 1946; Landis, 1936; Landis,Zubin, & Katz, 1935; McNemar & Landis, 1935