To study Competency Mapping, we need to understand what is Competency? The basic meaning of competency is as follows-
What is Competency?
- The ability to do something successfully or efficiently.
- State or quality of being able and fit.
- capability, ability, proficiency, knowledge, expertness, skill, resources, talent, aptitude.
- Competency -an important skill that is needed to do a job
- Competency refers to a person’s fitness with reference to his or her job. (Palan, 2003)
- Any underlying characteristic required performing a given task, activity, or role successfully can be considered as competency.
- Competency may take the following forms: (KASOs)
- Knowledge- Understanding acquired through learning. It is a body of information relevant to job performance. It is what people have to know to be able to perform a job, such as knowledge of policies and procedures for a recruitment process.
- Attitude- Your View Point towards the job
- Skill- Capabilities acquired through practice. It can be financial skill – budgeting, or a verbal skill ; making a presentation.
- Other characteristics of an individual includes:
- Traits- Inherent characteristics brought to the job, the essential foundation upon which knowledge and skill can be developed.
- Self Concept
- Currently, KSAOs are commonly referred to as competencies (Schippmann, 2000)
What is mapping ?
- Chart, plot, draw, portray.
Definition of Competency
- According to Office Of Personal Management, USA Govt, ” A competency is a measurable pattern of KSAOs that an individual needs to perform work roles or occupational functions successfully.
- Competencies specify the “how” of performing job tasks, or what the person needs to do the job successfully.
- General Definition of a Competency-– A competency is a characteristic of an employee that
- Contributes to successful job performance
- The achievement of organizational results.
These include measurable or assessable KASOs that distinguish superior performers from average performers (Shippmann et.al. 2000; Spencer, McClelland, & Spencer 1994)
- Hogg B (1989) defined competencies are the characteristics of a manager that lead to the demonstration of skills and abilities, which result in effective performance within an occupational area. Competency also embodies the capacity to transfer s kills and abilities from one area to another.
So in summary, The definitions of competencies reveals:
1.The characteristics of a employee.
2.Competencies lead the demonstration of skills/ abilities. Therefore, competency must be demonstrated and, hence, must be observable and not be inferred.
3.Competencies must lead to effective performance. It must be significantly better than that of a person without it. It should differentiating success from merely doing the job.
4.Competency also includes the capacity to transfer skills/ abilities from one area to another.
What is Competency Mapping?
- It is the process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time.
- It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies needed to perform the same successfully.
- Also called competency profiles or skills profiles.
- Two Approaches to do it-
- Organization oriented – Organizational aims given more importance rather than starting with the job as a point of analysis
- Training oriented- The analyst first identifies what the organization needs to be effective
- Difference Bwetween Job Analysis & Competency Mapping
Job Analysis Competency Mapping Approach Bottom up Top down For Standard performance Superior performance Purpose For job For organization Focus Work Worker
History of Competency Mapping Movement
- Lead by Benjamin Bloom in the USA in mid 1950s.
- David McClelland
- Harvard Psychologist, pioneered the competency movement across the world.
- His classic books on “Talent and Society”, “Achievement Motive”, “The Achieving Society”, “Motivating Economic Achievement” and “Power the Inner Experience’
- McClelland (1973) titled where in he presented data that traditional achievement and intelligence scores may not be able to predict job success.
- ‘Latter McBer’ a Consulting Firm founded by David McClelland.
- McClelland & his associate Berlew have specialized in mapping the competencies of entrepreneurs and managers across the world. They even developed a new and yet simple methodology called the Behaviour Event Interviewing (BEI) to map the competencies
- Douglas Brey where in they presented evidence that competencies can be assessed through assessment centers an on the job success can be predicted
Areas of Competencies
- According to Daniel Katz’s Harvard Business Review, he grouped them under three areas which were later expanded in to the following four:
1.Technical / Functional Competencies – KASOs associated with the technology or functional expertise required to perform the role);
2.Managerial – KASOs. required to plan, organize, mobilize and utilize various resources;
3.Human – KASOs required to motivate, utilize and develop human resources
4.Conceptual – abilities to visualize the invisible, think at abstract levels and use the thinking to plan future business.
Methods of Competency Mapping
- Group work,
- Task Forces,
- Task Analysis workshops,
- Psychometric Questionnaire,
- Use of Job descriptions,
- Performance Appraisal Formats etc.
- Thornton G.C. , Rupp D.E.-Assessment Centers in Human Resource Management_ Strategies for Prediction, Diagnosis, and Development-Psychology Press (2005)