Job analysis: meaning, purpose and methods

Job analysis: meaning

different jobs

Group of workers people. Isolated on white background

Job is a collection of tasks, works, duties, responsibilities.

Dale Yoder. “A Job is a collection of duties, tasks and responsibilities which are assigned to an individual and which is different from other assignments”

An analysis is when you examination/ observe / inspection/scanning/study/ exploration something, here we do all these processes with the job.

Definition of Job analysis

According to Sanchez & Levine(2000) defined ‘Job analysis as gathering, analyzing and structuring information about a job’s components, characteristics, and requirements .’

Edwin B. Flippo, “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job “

Blum, “A job analysis is an accurate study of the various components of a job. It is concerned not only with an analysis of the duties and conditions of work, but also with the individual qualifications of the worker.”

In summary, job analysis is the process of determining the work activities and requirements.

Purpose of Job Analysis 

It is the foundation for almost all human resources activities in any organization.

    1. Writing Job Descriptions-  2-5 page summary of the tasks and job requirements, found in the job analysis.
    2. Employee Selection-  It will give clear understanding of the tasks and the competencies, help in identifying possible tests or interview questions to know applicants knowledge, skills, and abilities to carry out the requirements of the job.
    3. Training – Job Analysis will yield lists of job activities that can be systematically used to create training programs.
    4. Personpower Planning-  To determine worker mobility within an organization. like promotions and all. Peter Principle: promoting employees until they eventually reach their highest level of incompetence (Peter & Hull, 1969).
    5. Performance Appraisal
    6. Job Classification
    7. Job Evaluation
    8. Job Design
    9. Compliance with Legal Guidelines
    10. Organizational Analysis

Job Analysis Methods

Step 1: Identify Tasks Performed

Step 2: Write Task Statements

      • where the task is done,
      • how it is done,
      • why it is done,
      • when it is done.

Step 3: Rate Task Statements

Step 4: Determine Essential KSAOs i.e Competencies

# A knowledge – a body of information needed to perform a task.
# A skill – the proficiency to perform a learned task.
# An ability – a basic capacity for performing a wide range of different tasks, acquiring a knowledge, or developing a skill.
#Other characteristics – include such personal factors as personality, interest, willingness, interest, and motivation and such tangible factors as licenses, degrees, and years of experience.

Step 5: Selecting Tests to Tap KSAOs

Interviews, work samples, ability tests, personality tests, reference checks, integrity tests, biodata,
and assessment centres.

other job analysis methods

  1. Position Analysis Questionnaire.

Position Analysis Questionnaire is a structured instrument developed at Purdue University by McCormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), The PAQ contains 194 items organized into six main dimensions:

    1. Information input,
    2. Mental processes,
    3. Work output,
    4. Relationships with other persons,
    5. Job context, and
    6. Other job-related variables such as work schedule, pay,  responsibility

2. Job Structure Profile.

A revised version of the PAQ was developed by Patrick and Moore (1985). The major changes in the revision, which is called the Job StructureProfi le (JSP).

3.Job Elements Inventory (JEI)-

Developed by Cornelius and Hakel (1978). The JEI contains 153 items and has a readability level appropriate for an employee with only a tenth-grade education.

4.Functional Job Analysis (FJA)

Designed by Fine (1955) as a quick method that could be used by the federal government to analyze and
compare thousands of jobs. Jobs analyzed by FJA are broken down into the percentage of time the incumbent spends on three functions:  in 100 items on 5 point rating scale.

    1. Data (information and ideas),
    2. People (clients, customers, and coworkers),
    3. Things (machines, tools, and equipment).

General Steps in Job Analysis

1. Selection of Jobs for Analysis: To do job analysis is a costly and time consuming process. Decide –

    • Priorities among various jobs
    • Selection because of undocumented changes in job content.
    • Request for analysis originated by the employee, supervisor, or a manager.

2. Collection of Job Analysis Data from:

    • The employees who actually perform a job; or 
    • Other employees (such as foremen or supervisors) who watch
    • Expert – Interviewing Subject Matter Experts. The outside persons, known as the trade job analysis who are appointed to watch employees performing a job.

3. Determine the Use of the Job Analysis Information: This will determine the type of data you collect and the technique you use to collect them.

4. Collection of Background Information: such as

    • organization charts (which show how the job in question relates to other jobs and where they fit into the overall organization);
    • class specifications (which describe the general requirements of the class of job to which the job under analysis belongs);
    • the existing job descriptions which provide a starting point from which to build the revised job description”.

A. Writing Job Description or Work Oriented approach of Job Analysis

    1. Job Identification: It includes the job title, alterative title, department, division, and plant and code number of the job. This portion of job description gives answer to two important questions:
        • to what higher-level job is this job accountable. And
        • who is supervised directly?

2. Job Summary: Activities or tasks to be performed.

3. Duties and Responsibilities: It describes the duties to be performed along with the frequency of each major duty. • Responsibilities concerning custody of money, supervision and training of staff etc. are also described in this part.

4. Supervision:

        • Number of persons to be supervised along with their job titles, and
        • the extent of supervision involved -general, intermediate or close supervision.

5. Relation to Other Jobs:

        • Vertical and horizontal relationships of work flow.
        • To whom the jobholder will report and who will report to him.

6. Machine, tools and equipment to use

7. Working Conditions: Heat, light, noise, dust and fumes etc job hazards and possibility of their occurrence and working conditions

8.Social Environment

B. Writing Job Specification or Person Oriented approach of Job Analysis

Flippo has Defined  “Job specification is a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly. It is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for acceptable performance.”

1. Physical characteristics, which include health, strength, endurance, age, height, weight, vision voice, eye, hand and foot co-ordination, motor co-ordination, and colour discrimination.

2. Psychological and social characteristics such as personality, emotional stability, flexibility, decision-making ability, analytical view, mental ability, pleasing manners, initiative, conversational ability etc.

3. Mental Characteristics such as general intelligence, memory, judgement, ability to concentrate, foresight etc.

4. Personal Characteristics such as gender, education, family background, job experience, hobbies, extracurricular activities etc

Uses of Job Analysis

      1. Achievement of organization goals: If jobs designed well and done right 
      2. To decide hierarchical positions and functional differentiation: Operational efficiency will increase
      3. Useful in manpower planning and determining duties and responsibilities 
      4. What sort of people to recruit and select 
      5. Placement and Orientation
      6. Employee Training and Development: Content of training courses
      7. Deciding worth of Job (Compensation): on the basis of job characteristics and job holder characteristics
      8. Performance Appraisal: In comparing actual performance Vs desired performance (as per job analysis)
      9. Health and Safety: identifying hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors to take corrective measures
      10. Employee Counselling: Employees who are unable to cope with the hazards and demands of given jobs may be advised to opt for subsidiary jobs.

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