- Writing is a cognitive task that is both difficult and time consuming.
- Important component of peoples occupation.
- 30% time in writing.(kelloge,1989).
- Relatively new in research
Comparing Speaking and Writing
- Naturally speaking and writing share same cognitive processes.
- Ellis and Beattie (1986)- different from speaking in the following context.
- Occur in isolation
- Involved delayed social feedback
- Required extensive revising and editing
- Involves syntactically and lexically complex language
- Recorded in potentially permanent form
- Chafe & Danielewicz,(1987) examined professor and students. informal sample of speech and formal articles and personal letters.
- Written language shows relatively varied vocabulary than spoken language in both formal/informal.
- Spoken language more phrases(sort of, kind of..etc.) than Written language.
- Spoken language shows more involvement with audience.
Cognitive Tasks Involved in Writing
- Similar Cognitive tasks involved in writings like understanding speech and speaking.
- Planning , Sentence Generating & Revising.
- Flower & Hayes describe the process
- “Writing is the act of dealing with excessive numbers of simultaneous demands or constrains.”
- Writer must translate the general ideas developed during planning to create actual sentence of text.
- Even most detailed outline must be greatly expanded during this process.
- Final essay is typically at least eight times longer than even the most elaborate outline.
- Hesitant phase tend to alternate with fluent phase.
- To revise what you have written you need to reconsider the goals ,to predict how well the text attempt goals and to improve it (Hayes,1989).
- Tremendous changes in revision (Hayes,1989). Hayes found that students who had background knowledge on topic were less likely to identify problems in passages in unclear essay on that topic.
- Ideally writer should be sensitive to grammatical and organizational problems when they are revising a writing samples.
- Galloti, K. M. (2004). Cognitive psychology in and out of the laboratory. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
- Matlin, M. (1994). Cognition. Bangalore: Harcourt Brace Pub.
- Anderson, J. R. (2015). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Worth Publishers