The NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 (NEO FFI-3) is a self-report personality inventory developed by Paul T. Costa, Jr., and Robert R. McCrae. This personality test provides a quick, reliable, and accurate measure of the five domains of personality. The five domains of personality are Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, & Conscientiousness.
It measures the five broad domains of personality:
- 1 Five Dimensions of the NEO-FFI:
- 2 Scoring and Interpretation of NEO FFI 3
- 3 Table (a): Item Wise Distribution in NEO-FFI
- 4 Table (b): Perceived Responses in NEO-FFI
- 5 Applications of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 (NEO-FFI-3):
Five Dimensions of the NEO-FFI:
- Neuroticism (N): This dimension assesses emotional stability, including factors such as anxiety, depression, and vulnerability to stress.
- Extraversion (E): Extraversion measures the extent to which an individual is sociable, outgoing, and energetic as opposed to reserved and introverted.
- Openness to Experience (O): Openness reflects an individual’s receptiveness to new experiences, creativity, and intellectual curiosity.
- Agreeableness (A): Agreeableness assesses an individual’s level of compassion, cooperativeness, and trustworthiness as opposed to antagonism and competitiveness.
- Conscientiousness (C): Conscientiousness measures an individual’s organization, responsibility, and self-discipline in contrast to impulsivity and carelessness.
The NEO FFI-3 is a 60-item inventory that is typically completed in 10-15 minutes & 5 minutes for scoring. It is a reliable and valid measure of personality that has been used in research and practice for over 30 years.
Scoring and Interpretation of NEO FFI 3
- The NEO-FFI consists of a series of 60 items, statements or questions, each dimension has 6 facets and 12 items. .
Table (a): Item Wise Distribution in NEO-FFI
Dimension Item No. Neuroticism 1*, 6, 11, 16*, 21, 26, 31*, 36, 41, 46*, 51, 56 Extraversion 2, 7, 12*, 17, 22, 27*, 32, 37, 42*, 47, 52, 57* Openness 3*, 8*, 13, 18*, 23*, 28, 33, 38*, 43, 48*, 53, 58 Agreeableness 4, 9*, 14*, 19, 24*, 29, 34, 39*, 44*, 49, 54*, 59* Conscientiousness 5, 10, 15*, 20, 25, 30*, 35, 40, 45*, 50, 55*, 60
* Negative Statements
Table (b): Perceived Responses in NEO-FFI
Response Numerical Value SD (Strongly Disagree) 0 (4 for negatively worded statements) D (Disagree) 1 (3 for negatively worded statements) N (Neutral) 2 (2 for both positively and negatively worded statements) A (Agree) 3 (1 for negatively worded statements) SA (Strongly Agree) 4 (0 for negatively worded statements)
- Respondents rate their agreement or disagreement with these statements on a Five point Likert scale, i.e. Strongly Disagree (SD), Disagree (D), Neutral (N) , Agree (A) & Strongly Agree (SA) typically ranging from 0 to 4 , with higher values indicating stronger agreement with the statement.
The NEO FFI-3 is scored by adding up the responses to the items for each personality domain. The raw scores are then converted to T scores, which are standardized scores that allow for comparisons to other people of the same age and gender.
- Age range 16 + years
The NEO FFI-3 T scores are interpreted as follows:
- T scores below 35: Very low
- T scores 35-49: Low
- T scores 50-64: Average
- T scores 65-79: High
- T scores above 80: Very high
It is important to note that the NEO FFI-3 is a self-report measure, and as such, it is susceptible to social desirability bias. This means that people may tend to answer the items in a way that they think will make them look good to others. Therefore, it is important to interpret the NEO FFI-3 scores with caution.
Description of each of the five personality domains measured by the NEO FFI-3:
- Neuroticism: Neuroticism is a measure of emotional stability. People who score high on neuroticism are more likely to experience negative emotions such as anxiety, worry, and sadness. They are also more likely to be reactive and impulsive in their behavior. People who score low on neuroticism are more likely to be emotionally stable and calm. They cope well with stress and adversity effectively.
- Extraversion: Extraversion is a measure of outgoingness and sociability. People who score high on extraversion are more likely to enjoy being around other people and to seek out new experiences. They are also more likely to be assertive and talkative. People who score low on extraversion are more likely to be introverted and reserved. They may prefer to spend time alone or with a small group of close friends.
- Openness to Experience: Openness to experience is a measure of intellectual curiosity and creativity. People who score high on openness to experience are more likely to be interested in new ideas and experiences. They are also more likely to be tolerant of ambiguity and uncertainty. People who score low on openness to experience are more traditional and conventional. They prefer to stick to familiar routines and to avoid new situations.
- Agreeableness: Agreeableness is a measure of trust and cooperation. People who score high on agreeableness are more likely to be trusting and helpful. They are forgiving and to avoid conflict. People who score low on agreeableness are more likely to be cynical and suspicious. They may also be more likely to be assertive and competitive.
- Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness is a measure of orderliness and responsibility. People who score high on conscientiousness are more likely to be organized and efficient. They are hardworking and reliable. People who score low on it, are more likely to be disorganized and impulsive. They may also be more likely to procrastinate and to avoid responsibility.
It is important to note that personality is a complex phenomenon and that the NEO FFI-3 is just one measure of personality. It is also important to remember that personality is not fixed and that it can change over time.
Reliability of NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 (NEO FFI 3)
It is the consistency of a measure. A reliable measure will produce similar results when administered to the same person on multiple occasions. The NEO FFI-3 has high internal consistency reliability, with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from 0.70 to 0.86 for the five personality domains. This indicates that the items within each domain are highly correlated with each other. The NEO FFI-3 also has high test-retest reliability, with correlations ranging from 0.79 to 0.89 for the five personality domains across a 6-month period. This indicates that the NEO FFI-3 is stable over time.
Validity of NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 (NEO FFI 3)
It is the extent to which a measure measures what it is intended to measure. The NEO FFI-3 has strong construct validity, as evidenced by its correlations with other measures of personality. For example, the NEO FFI-3 Neuroticism scale correlates 0.73 with the Neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The NEO FFI-3 Extraversion scale correlates 0.64 with the Extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.
The NEO FFI-3 also has strong predictive validity. For example, the NEO FFI-3 Neuroticism scale is a predictor of job satisfaction, academic achievement, and mental health problems. The NEO FFI-3 Extraversion scale is a predictor of career success and social relationships.
Overall, the NEO FFI-3 is a well-validated and reliable measure of the five broad domains of personality. It is a valuable tool for use in research and practice.
Here are some additional psychometric properties of the NEO FFI-3:
- Factor structure: The NEO FFI-3 has a clear and consistent factor structure, with five factors that correspond to the five personality domains.
- Cross-cultural validity: The NEO FFI-3 has been translated into over 50 languages and has been shown to be valid in a variety of cultures.
- Age-related norms: The NEO FFI-3 has age-related norms for adults and adolescents, which allows for comparisons to other people of the same age.
Applications of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 (NEO-FFI-3):
- Counseling: Counselors use the NEO-FFI-3 as a quick, reliable, and accurate measure of the five broad traits of personality.
- Psychology: Psychologists use it to explore personality traits in adolescents and adults.
- Employment and Personal Counseling: The NEO-FFI-3 is used in settings involving activities such as career counseling, career development, and employee training, where the four domains of Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness are the main focus.
- Research: The NEO-FFI-3 is used in outcomes research and patient evaluation in trauma settings.
- Environmental Valuation: The NEO-FFI survey inventory is used in environmental valuation studies.
- Predicting Academic Performance: The NEO-FFI-3 can predict academic performance like GPA, average grades, and course grades1.
- Improving Cognitive Process: As the NEO-FFI-3 delivers a clear personality domain, it becomes easy for people to improve their incorrect personality to achieve satisfaction in life.
- Cross-Cultural Applications: The NEO-FFI-3 is frequently used in research, particularly in examining cross-cultural applications of personality
- Psychometric Evaluation: The NEO-FFI-3 is used for psychometric evaluation of measures on adolescent school students
- Non-native English Speakers: The NEO-FFI-3 is a revision of the NEO-FFI aimed at better readability especially for respondents who are not native English speakers
These applications further demonstrate the versatility and usefulness of the NEO-FFI-3 in various fields.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). “The NEO-PI/NEO-FFI manual supplement.” Psychological Assessment Resources.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). “Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81-90.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2004). “A contemplated revision of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.” Personality and Individual Differences, 36(3), 587-596.
Note: Please be aware that there may be newer versions or adaptations of the NEO-FFI available, so it’s important to consult the most current sources for information on this assessment tool.