MBTI and 16 Personality Types


What is MBTI?

The long form of MBTI is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It is a self-evaluating report to assess personality. It was developed by Isabel Briggs Myer and her mother Catherine Cook Briggs in 1942. This test remains widely used throughout the field of psychology, helping individuals to gain insight on several aspects of life going forward (career choices, social/ interpersonal relations, as well as understanding of oneself to a certain extent).

This self-evaluating test is based on Carl Jung’s Analytic Theory ( Analytical psychology/Jungian theory). Carl Jung is a Swiss psychologist who has an immense contribution to the field of the ‘Psychoanalysis’ school of thought, alongside Sigmund Freud. Unlike Freud, Jung didn’t base his studies on the sexual aspect of a person. He popularized a more ‘open/broad’ ‘-minded approach to psychology.

Contrary to the definition of ‘libido’ provided by Freud, Jung argues that libido is just a ‘general force providing energy for all types of activities’.
This could either be – 1) A diffused form of energy (for general activities) ; or 2) Narrow Psychic energy aka “psyche”, responsible for activities like perceiving, thinking, feeling, wishing etc.

Jung based his principles of analytical psychology on the principles of energy in physics. He also heavily referenced fields like mythology, anthropology, religion and history.

Jung’s Model of Psyche:

Jung’s model of Psyche is comprised of 3 main components, that is:

  1. The Ego 
  2. The personal unconscious; 
  3. The collective unconscious.

1. The Ego- refers to the conscious mind containing awareness of personal identity (responsible for thinking, perceiving, feeling etc.).
2. The Personal unconscious- refers to the “lesser accessed parts of our minds”, consisting of repressed thoughts/ feelings.
3. The Collective unconscious- refers to the accumulation of primitive inherited experiences in the form of ideas or images (APA). It is the deepest and the most inaccessible part of the unconscious mind.

According to Jung, our psyche is “the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious.”; thus implying that the psyche plays a significant role in the determination of our personality. Jung focused on 8 main cognitive functions, that he thought are the core of determining one’s personality. They are as follows:

Jung’s Personality Dimensions :

Jung inferred that personality is based more or less on 4 pairs of opposing types; namely:
1. Extraversion/ Introversion
2. Sensing/ Intuition
3. Thinking/ Feeling
4. Judging/ Perceiving.

  • Extraversion (E): focused on the energies of the outer world and people rather than on inner subjective experience. (sociable, openly expressive, outgoing)
  • Introversion (I): focused on the internal private world of one’s self and one’s inner thoughts and feelings, rather than toward the outer world of people and things. (reserved, quiet, deliberate).
  • Sensing (S): the individual experiences the world based primarily on their senses.
  • Intuition (N): contrary to conscious reasoning or reflection, it is an immediate insight or perception.
  • Thinking (T): focused on the evaluation of information; rationally and logically.
  • Feeling (F): perceived experiences are mainly through the feeling aspect of the individual.
  • Judging (J): ability to conclude from evidence, evaluation of information, people or events.
  • Perceiving (P): characterized by a free and spontaneous approach to life and new experiences.

These 4 pairs of opposing types are placed on a continuum and thus help determine the individual’s type. Carl Jung says that opposites types can exist at the same time, but only one of them can be dominating in the personality.

The MBTI test thus uses these 4 opposing pairs to configure a person’s type and assigns them a combination of any 4 based on a self-report questionnaire. Each personality type consists of a 4 letter code, with each letter showing personality preferences.

A person can associate themselves with any of the 16 Personality types:
  1. 8 mbti personality types. ISTJ, ISFJ, INFP, INTJ, ISFP, INFJ, INTP, ISTP.

    MBTI personality types- Introversion

    ISTJ – The Inspector:

    • Characteristics: This personality type includes being responsible, sincere, reserved and analytical. People in this category are hardworking, trustworthy and very practical.
    • Professions: Accountant, Auditor, Police Officer, Judge, Engineer, Military Officer.
  2. ISFJ – The Protector:
    • Characteristics: This personality type includes being warm, considerate, gentle, responsible, sensible and thorough. Enjoy being helpful.
    • Professions: Nurse, Social Worker, Teacher, Librarian, Administrative Assistant, Counselor.
  3. INFJ – The Counselor:
    • Characteristics: This personality type includes being innovative, independent, strategic, logical, reserved, and insightful. Having their original ideas to achieve improvements.
    • Professions: Psychologist, Counselor/Therapist, Writer, Artist, Humanitarian Worker, Teacher.
  4. INTJ – The Mastermind:
    • Characteristics: This personality type includes being responsible, sincere, analytical, and systematic. Hardworking and trustworthy with practical judgement.
    • Professions: Scientist, Engineer, Architect, Strategist, CEO, Lawyer, Researcher.
  5. ISTP – The Craftsman:
    • Characteristics: This personality type includes being logical, spontaneous, and independent. They enjoy adventures and are skilled at understanding how mechanical things work.
    • Professions: Mechanic, Engineer, Pilot, Surgeon, Athlete, Forensic Scientist.
  6. ISFP – The Composer:
    • Characteristics: They tend to be gentle, sensitive, helpful, flexible and realistic. They wish to create a personal environment that is beautiful, working and practical.
    • Professions: Artist, Musician, Designer, Photographer, Counselor, Chef.
  7. INFP – The Healer:
    • Characteristics: They are sensitive, creative, idealistic, perceptive, caring and loyal. They value inner harmony and personal growth and focus on dreams and possibilities.
    • Professions: Writer, Counselor/Therapist, Social Worker, Teacher, Artist, Non-profit Worker.
  8. INTP – The Architect:
    • Characteristics: People in this category are intellectual and precise. They are imaginative and flexible. They come up with their ideas and enjoy problem-solving.
    • Professions: Scientist, Engineer, Mathematician, Software Developer, Researcher, Philosopher.
  9. 8 Personality types. ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ENTP, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENTJ.

    MBTI personality types- Extraversion

    ESTP – The Dynamo:

    • Characteristics: This personality type includes being outgoing, realistic, and action-oriented. They tend to be curious and versatile and are very spontaneous. They enjoy solving pragmatic problems and are skillful negotiators.
    • Professions: Entrepreneur, Salesperson, Athlete, Paramedic, Police Officer, Actor/Actress.
  10. ESFP – The Performer:
    • Characteristics: Playful, enthusiastic, friendly, tactful and flexible. They have a strong common sense and enjoy tangibly helping people.
    • Professions: Actor/Actress, Entertainer, Salesperson, Event Planner, Flight Attendant, Coach.
  11. ENFP – The Champion:
    • Characteristics: This personality type is known to be enthusiastic, creative, spontaneous, supportive and playful. They value inspiration and enjoy starting new projects, they see potential in others.
    • Professions: Teacher, Counselor/Therapist, Writer, Entrepreneur, Politician, Marketing Professional.
  12. ENTP – The Visionary:
    • Characteristics: Inventive, enthusiastic, inquisitive, strategic and enterprising. They are versatile and enjoy new ideas and challenges.
    • Professions: Inventor, Lawyer, Entrepreneur, Consultant, Journalist, Politician.
  13. ESTJ – The Supervisor:
    • Characteristics: They are efficient, outgoing, analytical, systematic and dependable. They like to run the show and get things done systematically.
    • Professions: Manager/Administrator, Lawyer, Military Officer, Police Officer, Accountant, Business Owner.
  14. ESFJ – The Provider:
    • Characteristics: Friendly, outgoing, reliable, conscientious, practical and organized. They are helpful and like to please others, they enjoy being active.
    • Professions: Nurse, Teacher, Social Worker, Human Resources Professional, Event Planner, Salesperson.
  15. ENFJ – The Teacher:
    • Characteristics: This personality type tends to be caring, enthusiastic, idealistic, organized, diplomatic, and responsible. They are skilled communicators who value connection with people.
    • Professions: Teacher/Professor, Counselor/Therapist, Social Worker, HR Professional, Event Planner, Religious Leader.
  16. ENTJ – The Commander:
    • Characteristics: Independent, strategic and logical. They are ambitious and efficient. They are effective organizers of people and long-range planners.
    • Professions: CEO/Executive, Manager/Administrator, Lawyer, Entrepreneur, Politician, Military  Officer.


Thus, MBTI is a framework helping an individual to recognize their personality type based on any one of the 16 types. It is to be kept in mind that personality is dynamic and ever changing, and evolves throughout life. This test helps as an insight guide into the individual’s behavior, and interpersonal dynamics.

Despite its popularity and usage throughout the field, many criticize this test for its oversimplification and basing it solely on cognitive functions, leaving out many other important factors. While the MBTI test can be a helpful starting guide for exploring one’s awareness, it is recommended to be used alongside other methods and assessment tools, for a more comprehensive understanding of personality.

Take the 16 personality test to find your MBTI personality type.


  • How the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator works: 16 personality types (Julina Simkus).
  • Personality Theory in a Cultural Context; Mark Kelland (2015).
  • APA Dictionary of Psychology.
  • Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator. 

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