A. The Iowa Leadership Studies by Kurt Lewin (University of Iowa,1930)
- A series of pioneering leadership studies by Ronald Lippitt and Ralph K. White under Lewin
- Kurt Lewin is recognized as the father of group dynamics
- Three different styles of leadership—
- Very directive and allowed no participation.
- Tended to give individual attention when praising and criticizing,
- Tried to be friendly or impersonal rather than openly hostile.
- Reactions- either aggressively or apathetically out of the frustration
- Encouraged group discussion and decision making.
- To be “objective” in giving praise or criticism and to be one of the group in spirit
- Most successful.
3.Laissez-faire – ‘let them do’
- Gave complete freedom to the group;
- This leader essentially provided no leadership.
- For seniors.
B. The Ohio State Leadership Studies (1945)
- by E.A. Fleishman, E.F. Harris and H.E. Burtt (1945)
- Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ)
- Premise-no satisfactory definition of leadership existed.
- Assumption – leadership was synonymous with good leadership.
- Two dimensions/factors of leadership
1.Consideration – recognition of individual needs and relationships
2.Initiating structure – task or goal orientation; focus on performance of employees and meeting of deadlines
- This two-dimensional approach lessened the gap between
- A. the strict task orientation of the scientific management movement and
- B. the Human Relations Movement emphasis, popular that time
C. The Early Michigan Leadership Studies
- Rensis Likert and his associates(1946)
- The concern more on the interpersonal relations with the employees
- More attention on the needs of the employees and
- Accepted the individual differences among members.
- Attention to the technical aspects of the job or the tasks assigned to the employees, rather than on employees.
- Least importance to the group members, and
- Regarded the employees as only a means to achieve the ends,