Definitions of Positive Psychology
Martin Seligman & Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s definition of positive psychology as “the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life.
Sheldon and King’s (2001) definitions of positive psychology is “nothing more than the scientific study of ordinary human strengths and virtues”
Gable and Haidt (2005) defined positive psychology is “the study of the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of people, groups and institutions.”
“Positive psychology is the scientific study of what makes life most worth living” (Peterson, 2008)
According to American Psychological Association (APA), Positive Psychology is a field of psychological theory and research that focuses on the psychological states (e.g., contentment, joy), individual traits or character strengths (e.g., intimacy, integrity, altruism, wisdom), and social institutions that enhance subjective well-being and make life most worth living.
Eudaimonic happiness: a positive emotional state achieved through experiences of meaning and purpose (Vinney, 2020).
Flourish: “finding fulfillment in our lives, accomplishing meaning and worthwhile tasks, and connecting with others at a deeper level- in essence, living the ‘good life’” (Seligman, 2011).
Happiness: “the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his/her own life-as-a-whole favorably” (Veenhoven, 2020).
Hedonic happiness: a positive emotional state achieved through experiences of pleasure and enjoyment (Vinney, 2020).
Well-being is “a state of happiness and contentment, with low levels of distress, overall good physical and mental health and outlook, or good quality of life” as per American Psychological Association (APA)
An individual’s well-being is “influenced by both internal factors. It include personality and outlook, and external factors, such as the society in which they live” (Diener, 2020).
Subjective well-being (SWB):. “The scientific term for happiness and life satisfaction- thinking and feeling that your life is going well, not badly” (Diener, 2020).
As per American Psychological Association (APA), Positive Affect is a internal feeling state (affect) that occurs when a goal has been attained, a source of threat has been avoided, or the individual is satisfied with the present state of affairs. The tendency to experience such states is called positive affectivity.
American Psychological Association (APA), defined Positive Emotion is an emotional reaction designed to express a positive affect, such as happiness when one attains a goal, relief when a danger has been avoided, or contentment when one is satisfied with the present state of affairs.
American Psychological Association (APA), defined Negative Emotion is an unpleasant, often disruptive, emotional reaction designed to express a negative affect. Negative emotion is not conducive to progress toward obtaining one’s goals. Examples are anger, envy, sadness, and fear.
Scheier and Carver (1992) define Dispositional Optimism as a global expectation that the future will bring a bounty of good things and a scarcity of bad things.
Scheier and Carver view optimism in the context of self-regulated actions aimed at the achievement of personal goals. Faced with difficulties, optimists believe they can overcome them and therefore persevere in their efforts.